【雅思】2020寒假专题 | 雅思写作高级表达——不可不知的定语从句用法

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定语从句大约是雅思写作中使用得最为频繁的一种构造复杂表达的语法内容了,大家较为熟悉,相比较于其他类型的从句也比较简单。但是在雅思写作考试的高压下,想写出表达高深从句的烤鸭们,常常还是有定语从句误用的情况,接下来我们将分析其原因及如何用将定语从句转换成非谓语动词的高级表达的写法

 

1. 雅思写作定语从句之用法不当

很多中国考生认为因为which使用次数更少,所以在定语从句中which会比that使用分数更高,这其实是一个误区,因为which不能取代that在所有的定语从句中的使用。

A. 可共用的地方——指代一般物

例如:

The amount of the rubbish that we produce is increasing at an alarming rate.

在这句话中,that就可以用which取代,而且建议考生当thatwhich在定语从句中充当宾语的情况下能省略就省略。

再如:

The problem that has been under debate for several decades is that the basic facilities and infrastructure are unlikely to satisfy the needs of more tourists.

 

B. 不能共用的地方——只能用which,不能用that

例如:

Students living in their own homes would live a more comfortable life and have more opportunities to communicate with their parents, which has a beneficial impact on the development of their personal character.

再如:

Television, the most pervasive means of entertainment for the average public, is advancing towards an entirely new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which is likely to reshape the world.

 

在这两句话中,which都是不可以用that取代的,因为which在文章中指代的是前面的整句话,所以which后面的谓语动词用的也是单三形式。当which在从句里面用来表示前面整句话造成的影响时,which前面要用逗号,谓语动词用单数。

 

C. 只能使用that,不能使用which的地方

当先行词为alllittlemuchfeweverythingnone等不定代词时关系代词用that而不用which

Many people hold the view that they can do nothing to protect the fragile environment, andeverything that does have good impacts on the environment can only be implemented with the political will.

There would be few that could pursue a career without future.

 

当先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词用that,不用which

There are a great number of ignorant people and large companies that sacrifice the environment to get the maximum profits.

 

The most important thing is concerned with the reaction of workers and factories that do not agree with this new scheme.

 

当先行词有形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词用that,而不用which

Many people have extraordinary willingness to bombard their brains with new experiences, while others avoid the latest things that they think would make them have the feeling of fear.

 

当先行词有序数词修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which

 

The first sight that was caught at the Great Wall has made a lasting impression on him.

The first impression that you leave to the interviewer is the most important thing that determines whether you are admitted by the company.

 

当先行词被the only, the very, the same, the right等修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which

Travelling exposes the students to a variety of cultures and natural beauty by themselves, the very experience that school education cannot provide to them.

This is the very hotel that we lived last year.

 

当先行词被all, every, any, much, little, few, no等修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which

Much of the blame that needs to be taken should be placed on tourists themselves, who foolishly clambered all over the revered Buddha statues.

Every child that has auditory deficit would have difficulty in learning to reach the maximum potential.

 

当主句是以which开头的特殊问句时,定语从句关系代词一般用that而不用which.

Which of the books that had pictures was worth reading?

Many people wonder which of the problems that they are facing is the most pressing one and should be researched and solved immediately.

 

指代人时,只可以使用that以及who,而不可以使用which

In my opinion, there are plenty of opportunities for everyone in our society, but only thosethat are adequately prepared and highly qualified can make full use of them.

that不可以用which取代,因为that前面的先行词是人,所以只能用that或者who来引导。

 

在强调句型“It is ... that ...”中,只用that,不用which

It is the lack of financial incentive that is responsible for the shortage of talents in the athletic field.

It is talent that determines whether a person can succeed in any field, particularly in theartistic and mathematic field.

 

2. 雅思写作定语从句之高级表达用法

定语从句高分的用法——将定语从句转换成非谓语动词,修饰前面的先行词

将从句中的关联词who去掉,从句的谓语动词变成了ing形式

例如:Those people who strongly support capital punishment have the following reasons.

改成:Those people strongly supporting capital punishment have the following reasons.

再如:Those students who study in a foreign country seem to be more self-confident,independent and well-informed.

改成:Those students studying in a foreign country seem to be more self-confident, independent and well-informed.

 

从句中的that照样去掉,从句的谓语动词由被动语态变成了过去分词。

例如:The buildings that were knocked down several years ago are with neither financial nor aesthetic values.

改成The buildings knocked down several years ago are with neither financial nor aesthetic values.

Foods that are exported from a foreign market are more expensive than the local products of the same kind.

改成Foods exported from a foreign market are more expensive than the local products of the same kind.

 

从句中的that去掉,构成完成时态的have变成having,这与主被动没有关系。

例如:The forest and bush that have been cleared for agriculture are now suffering from soil erosion.

改成The forest and bush having been cleared for agriculture are now suffering from soil erosion.

 

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